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Jhehlum

Jhelum District is in the Punjab province of Pakistan. According the 1998 census the district had a population of 936,957, of which 31.48% were urban. The district of Jhelum stretches from the river Jhelum almost to the Indus. Salt is quarried at the Mayo mine in the Salt Range. There are two coal-mines, the only ones worked in the province, from which the North-Western railway obtains part of its supply of coal. The chief centre of the salt trade is Pind Dadan Khan. The district is crossed by the main line of the North-Western railway, and also traversed along the south by a branch line. It is located in the north of the Punjab province, Jhelum district is bordered by Sargodha to its south, Gujrat and the Jhelum River to its south and east, Chakwal to its west, Mirpur to its east, and Rawalpindi to its north.

Administration

The district of Jhelum, which covers an area of 3,587 km2, is administratively divided into four tehsils: Jhelum, Sohawa, Pind Dadan Khan and Dina,- which are divided into 53 Union Councils. It also contains the cities of Jhelum,

Jhelum City:

The district capital, Jhelum City, is situated on the right bank of the Jhelum River, crossed by a bridge. The 16th-century Grand Trunk Road passes through the city. Jhelum City is near the site of the famous Battle of the Hydaspes between the armies of Alexander the Great and Raja Porus This battle took place a few miles downstream from the city centre, along the river banks. Population of the Jhelum city (proper) is about 172,073 [9](2009) and it is the 35th largest city of Pakistan with respect to population. A cantonment was built during the British rule, which has grown up into a strong Garrison, with an Infantry Division commanded by a Major General.

River Jhelum:

The River Jhelum below the bridge beside Jhelum City.The river Jhelum is navigable throughout the district, which forms the south-eastern portion of a rugged Himalayan spur, extending between the Indus and Jhelum to the borders of the Sind Sagar Doab. Its scenery is very picturesque, although not of so wild a character as the mountain region of Rawalpindi to the north, and is lighted up in places by smiling patches of cultivated valley. The backbone of the district is formed by the Salt Range, a treble line of parallel hills running in three long forks from east to west throughout its whole breadth.

The range rises in bold precipices, broken by gorges, clothed with brushwood and traversed by streams which are at first pure, but soon become impregnated with the saline matter over which they pass. Between the line of hills lies a picturesque table-land, in which the beautiful little lake of Kallar Kahar nestles amongst the minor ridges. North of the Salt Range, the country extends upwards in an elevated plateau, diversified by countless ravines and fissures, until it loses itself in tangled masses of Rawalpindi mountains. In this rugged tract cultivation is rare and difficult, the soil being choked with saline matter. At the foot of the Salt Range, however, a small strip of level soil lies along the banks of the Jhelum, and is thickly dotted with prosperous villages.

The drainage of the district is determined by a low central watershed running north and south at right angles to the Salt Range. The waters of the western portion find their way into the Sohan, and finally into the Indus; those of the opposite slope collect themselves into small torrents, and empty themselves into the Jhelum.

Flora & Fauna

Vegetation of the forests of Jhelum Forest Division is dry deciduous scrub type, Phulai, Kau and sanatha are the main species. The stocking on the whole is poorand the forests are open. Vegetation is poor on sand stone and redmarl. The southern slopes are often devoid of vegetation while north western slopes carry good forests. The forests of Jhelum Forests Divisions are burdened with right of grazing browsing and firewood. Under settlement out of total area 93,566 acres only 5,468 acres about (45%) are right free. Remaining 55% are open to grazing.

The fauna of the District is mostly indigenous restricted, like the vegetation, but similarly varied and interesting. The rugged and rough terrain, low rainfall, the scantly cover of vegetation and the burning passions of the increasing number of hunters, all have their share in limiting the animal kingdom in the District. The riverine offers a better environment than elsewhere though the hills support a more interesting wildlife. Urial and Chinckara are spot aids while wild bores are found in the Salt Range. Wolves, Foxes and Wild Cats are also found. Hare is fairly common. Chikor grey and black Patridge are also found in the parts of the District. Migratory ducks like Teal Pintail and Mallard and some geese visit during winter.

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